The duo analyzed oral arguments from 1990, 2002, and 2015, when there were one, two, and three women on the court, respectively. In 1990, when Sandra Day O'Connor was the only female justice, 35.7 percent of interruptions occurred when she was speaking. In รองเท้าแฟชั่น เกาหลี 2002, with O'Connor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg on the court, 45.3 of interruptions were directed at the two women on the court. And in 2015, when Ginsburg was joined by Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan, 65.9 of interruptions happened as the three women made their oral arguments. Interestingly enough, the women on the court actually speak less often and use fewer words when they make their argument (it's unconfirmed if this a defense mechanism to cope with the inevitability of a male justice interrupting them). However, that doesn't stop their male colleagues from interjecting at a much higher rate than they would for the other men sitting on the bench. Case in point: In 2015, Ginsburg was interrupted 11 times by Anthony Kennedy; Sotomayor was interrupted 15 times by Kennedy, 14 times by Samuel Alito, and 12 times by Chief Justice John Roberts; Kagan was interrupted over 10 times each by Kennedy, Alito, and Roberts. In contrast, only two of the men court were interrupted upwards of 10 times and the highest number of interruptions coming from one of the women was seven. The researchers found that this wasn't simply a matter of seniority, considering that Kagan and Sotomayor are the most junior ranking members of the Court. Though these two women were interrupted more frequently than the nearly 24-year-veteran RBG, Jacobi and Schweers determined that gender was "approximately 30 times more influential than seniority" when it came to interruptions. Worse, this behavior even carries through to advocates who appear before the Supreme Court.

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The supreme commander of the Pakistani army General Raheel Sharif salutes as he inspects a military honour guard at the Pakistani army Each state, it was alleged, funded and supported militant Sunnis and Shia respectively in Pakistan to kill each other. Image copyright AFP Image caption Pakistan's Shia have been targeted by militants, as in Parachinar on 31 March when a car bomb killed 24 Even today there are still widespread attacks launched largely by Sunni militants against Shia across Pakistan and the government has so far failed to bring this sectarian war to an end. Many Shia have left the country. Unity hit? The deal has prompted enormous debate in Pakistan, with the main opposition coming from Imran Khan's Tehreek-e-Insaf party, which says such a deal would worsen the Sunni-Shia rift in Pakistan. The main advocate of the plan is Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, who owes the Saudis several political debts, including his release from a jail sentence imposed a decade ago after he was toppled in a military coup. Mr Sharif then lived for many years in exile as a guest of the Saudis. The army has also been historically close to the Saudis, providing troops and training in the 1980s to the Saudi armed forces and receiving help for the purchase of weapons systems. Many Pakistanis are desperately keen that the country stay out of the crises that have gripped the Middle East.

The Daily Mail, Britain's second-best selling newspaper faced a backlash last week for comparing May and Sturgeon's legs when they met amid disagreements over Brexit and Sturgeon's push for another Scottish referendum on independence. "I tried not to overreact," Sturgeon told the Women of the World Summit in New York when asked about the headline "Never mind Brexit, who won Legs-it!" "No matter how much progress women have made and are making, it's a vivid illustration of how much more we still have to achieve," Sturgeon told the women's empowerment event. She referenced an image taken last year from a meeting with May in Edinburgh that was cut off at the knees looking at their shoes. "This tendency to reduce women to body parts or to what they wear or what their hair looks like is not innocent and it's not something we should just laugh off," she said. Sturgeon said she was inspired by German Chancellor Angela Merkel and praised her for standing up to Donald Trump immediately after his electoral victory last year. "I've never been comfortable with the idea that when fundamental principles and values are at stake that politicians should just retain a diplomatic silence," she said. "I think we've all got a duty on some occasions to speak up and Angela Merkel did that," Sturgeon added. After the US election, Merkel offered Trump "close cooperation" but said relations must be based on the "values of democracy, freedom, respect for the rule of law and human dignity, regardless of origin, skin color, religion, gender, sexual orientation or political belief." Sturgeon also spoke out against what she called an "air of misogyny" about Hillary Clinton's treatment during the election. "The way that Hillary was talked about, the treatment that Hillary suffered at times, just seemed to me to have an air of misogyny about it that I wanted to believe that we had moved on from," she said. "She has made it easier for women like me in politics and I think for that I and women across the world really owe Hillary Clinton a debt of gratitude," the Scot said. Reblog

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